Future Trends in Grading and Classification of Canadian Wheat

1. More Objective Grading The visual grading system used by the CGC is fast and efficient, but it is often criticized for being too subjective. In response to this criticism the CGC is evaluating rapid objective test procedures in support of grading, and investigating whether there is an alternative to using standard samples to estimate the degree of soundness.
Rapid objective test procedures being evaluated by the CGC include near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), image analysis (also referred to as machine vision) and RapidViscoTM Analyzer (RVA). NIRS is well established for estimating wheat protein content and moisture content in Canada (Williams et al., 1978). Pawlinsky and Williams (1998) reported that NIRS has potential to predict bread-making functionality as well as wheat composition, but this has yet to be conclusively demonstrated. Preliminary investigations indicate that NIRS might be able to estimate durum wheat HVK levels accurately and reliably (Dexter et al., 2002).
Western Canadian Wheat Classes 1. Canada Western Red Spring (CWRS) Wheat CWRS is the largest class of wheat grown in western Canada with an annual average production of about 15 mio t. The availability of three milling grades, several guaranteed protein content levels, and carefully defined processing characteristics, give it the flexibility to be exported to over 60 markets annually. Major uses of CWRS are pan bread, hearth bread and as a strong blending wheat. It also finds use for noodles, pasta and flat breads in some markets.
The strength range among CWRS varieties is kept relatively narrow in order to maintain uniformity of strength within and between cargoes (Preston et al., 1988 and 2001). The most widely grown CWRS variety at present (2004) is AC Barrie. Physical dough properties of Neepawa, AC Barrie and Laura are shown in Tab. 19 to illustrate the range of strength deemed acceptable for CWRS varieties.
Many CWRS target markets use physical dough parameters as specifications…

Development of New Wheat Varieties in Canada

Factors Determining Wheat Quality Requirements The definition of wheat quality is diverse because it varies from region to region, market to market, and company to company. Wheat quality is also continuously evolving in response to changing consumer preference and changing processing technology. Globalization impacts on wheat quality requirements because multi-national companies apply similar quality specifications worldwide. Another factor affecting quality requirements is the influence of other cultures. An example is the emergence, in many countries,of North American-style fast food chains. Tomake high quality buns, a strong high protein bakery flour is required. This can open up significant demand for better quality wheat in markets that have traditionally not been quality conscious. In many countries, competition from imported wheat products drives wheat quality shifts.
Throughout the world the wheat industry is deregulating. The collapse of centrally planned economies in eastern…

Wheat Grading and Classification in Canada

A specific kernel size, shape and colour is reserved for each wheat class grown in western Canada (Fig. 23). A requirement for registering a wheat variety in western Canada is that it must have the visual appearance reserved for the class for which it qualifies. This unique feature of the Canadian wheat grading and classification system is referred to as kernel visual distinguishability (KVD). KVD ensures that wheat classes are easily and cost effectively kept distinct throughout the handling system. This preserves the unique attributes of each class; admixing of classes results in a product with less processing value. In eastern Canada, KVD is a requirement only for registration into the Canada Eastern White Winter (CEWW) wheat class.
Physical condition is a primary determinant of wheat processing value. Physical condition is determined primarily by growing conditions. In Canada, wheat is graded according to grade standards established by the CGC (2003a). The grade standards are set…

Canadian Wheat and Overview of the Canadian Wheat Quality Assurance System

Canadian Wheat By : J. E. Dexter, K.R. Preston and N. Woodbeck
The vast majority of Canadian wheat is produced in western Canada (Manitoba and provinces to the west). A large proportion of western Canadian wheat is exported, and it is marketed in a highly regulated fashion. As soon as western Canadian wheat is delivered by producers to a grain elevator the wheat becomes the property of the Canadian Wheat Board, which is a single desk seller for western Canadian wheat. Approval for registration into any of the eight classes of wheat in western Canada is based on merit according to disease resistance, agronomic performance and processing quality.
Wheat is also produced in eastern Canada, primarily in southern Ontario. Eastern Canadian wheat is also registered on the basis of merit, although processing quality models are not quite as strictly defined as for western Canada. There is no single desk seller for eastern Canadian wheat, which is marketed by private trading companies and the On…

U.S. Wheat Grades & Milling Industry Overview

1. U.S. Wheat Grades Tab. 15 summarizes the grade requirements for wheat. There are 5 wheat grades for good quality wheat. All other wheat, i.e. wheat that – does not meet the requirements for grades U.S. Numbers 1, 2, 3, 4 or 5; or – has a musty, sour, or commercially objectionable foreign odour (except smut or garlic odour); or – is heating or otherwise of distinctly low quality, is classified U.S. sample grade.

2. Milling Industry Overview
The U.S. Milling Industry has undergone dramatic change from any perspective, both from a historical and a current business view. North American milling is without question a competition- based market. It has been shaped and moulded by the economic forces created by the combined decisions of the consumers and producers of flour. In order to put these changes into a context to which we can all relate, a set of terms common to the U.S. market will be used to bring some clarity to this subject matter. • Annual Wheat Flour Production: Total flour produ…