Global Wheat Trade

The international trade in wheat (including durum and flour) reached an average volume of around 107 mio t during the last five years (1999/00 - 2003/04). This compares to 106 mio t during 1989/90 - 1993/94 and 96 mio t in 1979/80 - 1983/84. Accordingly, world trade in wheat increased by just 0.5% per annum during the last 20 years. During the same time, world wheat production showed a growth of approximately 1.4%. As a consequence, the share of world wheat trade expressed as a percentage of worldwide production dropped from 21% in 1979/80 - 1983/84 to 19% in 1979/89 - 83/84 and 1999/00 - 2003/04, respectively. This development demonstrates the efforts of nearly all wheat importing countries to improve their supplies of wheat through a higher domestic production. Exports of wheat continue to be dominated by the five traditional exporters: the USA, Canada, Argentina, Australia and the EU (Tab. 5). Three quarters of all exports came from these five countries during the most recent five-…

Future Trends of Wheat and New Breeding Technologies in Central Europe

1. Future Trends In view of the still long development period of 9 to 12 years it is essential for the survival of the breeding enterprises to foresee what demands growers, processors and consumers are likely to make on future varieties.
At present the following trends can be detected in wheat growing. In the main they have economic reasons, ignore experience in plant growing and make great demands on the varieties of the future in respect of stress tolerance in general: • The area used for wheat growing is increasing. • Leaf crops, which are very good preceding crops for wheat, are decreasing. • This will result in a steadily rising percentage of stubble wheat or even permanent wheat growing. • The sowing time is being moved forward to September even in locations with mild weather conditions. • Care in tilling the soil in general, and the handling of stubble in particular, is declining, and it is likely to decline even further as energy costs rise.
A likely result of these "sin…

Wheat Development in the U.S. & Wheat Cultivation and Harvest

1. Wheat Development in the U.S. The wheat plant itself goes through several stages of development from the time it is planted until it has reached maturity (Fig. 3). These stages are monitored and measured at each point by farmers and researchers in an effort to understand how best to improve the amount of wheat produced by each plant. This diligence combined with experience helps the farmer to make decisions about fertilizers or other chemical applications for disease and pest control. Ultimately, the goal is a large crop of high milling quality wheat produced at the least cost.
2. Wheat Cultivation and Harvest Wheat planting practices and the labour required for planting have seen dramatic changes over the last century. Powerful technology – enhanced tractors and implements capable of working more than 120 acres (48.6 hectares) in a single day (Fig. 4) – have replaced men with mules in the field.

In some cases wheat is even planted over the top of the previous year's stubble usi…

Wheat History and Kernel Composition

1. Wheat History K. Brunckhorst ( The Future of Flour )
Common wheat belongs to the Triticum genus of the grass-like subfamily (Pooideae). Scientists have traced its origin back to the Middle East region, particularly the valley of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. This area was then called Mesopotamia and is now part of Iraq. A form of the grass grew in the Euphrates valley as early as 7000 BC. The Assyrians and Babylonians mentioned wheat in stone ruins dating from 3000 BC. The Chinese are recorded as cultivating wheat in 2700 BC and had developed elaborate rituals to honour it.
Today wheat covers more of the earth's surface than any other grain crop and it is the staple grain food for much of the earth's population. Even in areas where there is a long tradition of rice eating, as in North and South East Asia, there is extensive use of wheat flour for making noodles, steamed bread and other foods.
The different wheat species are classified according to their ploidy level, i.…

Classification of Steamed Breads and Buns (Part 2)

Classification of Steamed Breads and Buns (Part 1)

A. DIFFERENCES IN INGREDIENTS The ingredients for traditional northern- and southern-style steamed breads are very simple: flour, water, and yeast or sourdough (Huang and Miskelly, 1991). Guangdong-style steamed bread may contain up to 25% sugar and 10% fat (Huang and Quail, 1997). Lard was the traditional source of fat, but has now been replaced by fats derived from palm or soy beans. Raising agents, particularly ammonium bicarbonate, have also been used to increase the softness. Dried milk powder or fresh milk is often used to enhance the flavor and protein content.
B. DIFFERENCES IN PHYSICAL PROPERTIES AND EATING QUALITY Key steamed bread quality parameters include specific volume, spread ratio, skin smoothness, color, and texture.
1. Specific Volume Specific volume is defined as the ratio of volume in milliliters to the weight ingrams. The specific volume for northern-style steamed bread is less than 2.5, while the specific volume fo…

Classification of Steamed Breads and Buns (Part 1)

Various forms of steamed products such as steamed bread, buns, and twisted rolls have developed throughout Chinese history (Table 2.1). These were regionally based on differences in geography, weather, agricultural products, and eating habits. Thus different formulations, processing methods, and quality preferences evolved. In northern China, which is a semiarid region, wheat is the main crop and steamed bread is a staple food. Northern-style steamed bread with firm, elastic, and cohesive eating quality is preferred as it provides greater satiety. The steamed bread should also have good chewing properties and a natural wheat flavor.
In southern China, which has a warm climate, rice rather than wheat is the staple food. Popular breakfast foods in the south include southern-style steamed bread and rice porridge. Southern-style steamed breads which are soft and a bit chewy are preferred over the traditional northern-style breads. In the Guangdong region of southern China, rice is the st…

Similarities between Stemed Buns and Other Wheat-Based Products

Other wheat-based products with fillings have developed throughout the world. Chinese dumplings (jiaozi) and European ravioli are prepared from thin wrappers similar to noodle or pasta dough sheets which are then used to enclose fillings. Other examples of European dumplings include pelmeni, pierogi, and kreplach. Unlike steamed buns, these doughs are not yeasted and the products are cooked by boiling. Germknoedel is a yeasted dumpling or steamed bun often filled with cooked plums and is a specialty of Austria and Bavaria. A related product, dampfnudeln, is fried to create a crispy base before steaming. The method of cooking is similar to that used for Chinese dumplings, although the characteristics and taste of the products are completely different.

CURRENT STATUS In China and other developing parts of Asia, there has been a rapid commercialization of the food and food distribution sectors. In the cities, manual and semimechanized production has been replaced by more efficient automat…