Wheat is one of the world’s most commonly consumed cereal grains.


It comes from a type of grass (Triticum) that is grown in countless varieties worldwide.


Bread wheat, or common wheat, is the primary species. Several other closely related species include durum, spelt, emmer, einkorn, and Khorasan wheat.


White and whole-wheat flour are key ingredients in baked goods, such as bread. Other wheat-based foods include pasta, noodles, semolina, bulgur, and couscous.


Wheat is highly controversial because it contains a protein called gluten, which can trigger a harmful immune response in predisposed individuals.


However, for people who tolerate it, whole-grain wheat can be a rich source of various antioxidants, vitamins, minerals, and fiber.


This article tells you everything you need to know about wheat.


Nutrition facts


Wheat is mainly composed of carbs but also has moderate amounts of protein.


Here are the nutrition facts for 3.5 ounces (100 grams) of whole-grain wheat flour.

  • Calories: 340 
  • Water: 11%
  • Protein: 13.2 grams
  • Carbs: 72 grams
  • Sugar: 0.4 grams
  • Fiber: 10.7 grams
  • Fat : 2.5 gram


Like all cereal grains, wheat is mainly composed of carbs.


Starch is the predominant carb in the plant kingdom, accounting for over 90% of the total carb content in wheat


The health effects of starch mainly depend on its digestibility, which determines its effect on blood sugar levels.


High digestibility may cause an unhealthy spike in blood sugar after a meal and have harmful effects on health, especially for people with diabetes.


Similar to white rice and potatoes, both white and whole wheat rank high on the glycemic index (GI), making them unsuitable for people with diabetes.


On the other hand, some processed wheat products — such as pasta — are digested less efficiently and thus don’t raise blood sugar levels to the same extent.




Whole wheat is high in fiber — but refined wheat contains almost none.


The fiber content of whole-grain wheat is 12–15% of the dry weight.


As they’re concentrated in the bran, fibers are removed during the milling process and largely absent from refined flour.


The main fiber in wheat bran is arabinoxylan (70%), which is a type of hemicellulose. The rest is mostly made up of cellulose


Most wheat fiber is insoluble, passing through your digestive system almost intact and adding bulk to stool. Some fibers also feed your gut bacteria


What’s more, wheat contains small amounts of soluble fibers, or fructans, that may cause digestive symptoms in people with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS).


By and large, though, wheat bran may have beneficial effects on gut health.




Proteins make up 7–22% of wheat’s dry weight.


Gluten a large family of proteins, accounts for up to 80% of the total protein content. It’s responsible for the unique elasticity and stickiness of wheat dough, the properties that make it so useful in breadmaking.


Wheat gluten can have adverse health effects in people with gluten intolerance.


Vitamins and minerals


Whole wheat is a good source of several vitamins and minerals.


As with most cereal grains, the amount of minerals depends on the soil in which it’s grown.


  • Selenium. This trace element has various essential functions in your body. The selenium content of wheat depends on the soil — and is very low in some regions, including China.


  • Manganese. Found in high amounts in whole grains, legumes, fruits and vegetables, manganese may be poorly absorbed from whole wheat due to its phytic acid content.


  • Phosphorus. This dietary mineral plays an essential role in the maintenance and growth of body tissues.


  • Copper. An essential trace element, copper is often low in the Western diet. Deficiency may have adverse effects on heart health.


  • Folate. One of the B vitamins, folate is also known as folic acid or vitamin B9. It’s particularly important during pregnancy.


Some of the most nutritious parts of the grain — the bran and germ — are absent from white wheat because they’re removed during the milling and refining process.


Therefore, white wheat is relatively poor in many vitamins and minerals compared to whole-grain wheat.


Because wheat accounts for a large portion of people’s food intake, flour is regularly enriched with vitamins and minerals.


In fact, enrichment of wheat flour is mandatory in many countries


Enriched wheat flour may be a good source of iron, thiamine, niacin, calcium, and vitamin B6, in addition to the above nutrients.


Other plant compounds


Most of the plant compounds in wheat are concentrated in the bran and germ, which are absent from refined white wheat.


The highest levels of antioxidants are found in the aleurone layer, a component of the bran.


Wheat aleurone is also sold as a dietary supplement


Common plant compounds in wheat include:


  • Ferulic acid. This polyphenol is the predominant antioxidant in wheat and other cereal grains.


  • Phytic acid. Concentrated in the bran, phytic acid may impair your absorption of minerals, such as iron and zinc. Soaking, sprouting, and fermenting grains can reduce its levels.


  • Alkylresorcinols. Found in wheat bran, alkylresorcinols are a class of antioxidants that may have a number of health benefits.


  • Lignans. These are another family of antioxidants present in wheat bran. Test-tube studies indicate that lignans may help prevent colon cancer.


  • Wheat germ agglutinin. This protein is concentrated in wheat germ and blamed for a number of adverse health effects. However, lectins are inactivated with heat — and thus neutralized in baked goods.


  • Lutein. An antioxidant carotenoid, lutein is responsible for the color of yellow durum wheat. High-lutein foods may improve eye health


Title : Wheat Nutrition Facts
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