1. Why does sandwich bread made from our flour (100% DNS) have a coarser texture when xylanase is added. Whereas we would expect the opposite effect?
Xylanases create a finer crumb structure by optimizing the gluten-pentosan network. The network is then able to form thinner membranes so that more and smaller bubbles are formed. The effect depends on the properties of this network (natural fluctuations are possible) and particularly on the properties and dosage of the xylanases.
Many xylanases from Trichoderma and also an overdose of other xylanases result in a coarser pore structure. Naturally the processing conditions have an impact on the effect of the enzymes too. A high water addition rate, high dough temperatures and long fermentation increase the tendency towards a coarser crumb.

2. How can crustiness be improved?
Given identical baking processes, flour with a lower protein content tends to yield bread with a better and longer-lasting crustiness. Malt flour, amylases and DATEM improve the crustiness further. In general, baked goods with a larger specific volume will be crustier than their smaller counterparts, because a larger surface is exposed to heating. This increases the baking loss and the browning reactions and therefore improves the crustiness.

3. What specifications should flours for buns, baguettes and yeast-raised doughnuts have?
Wheat flour qualities for specific baking and non baking applications
Wheat Classes :
HRW - Hard Red Winter
HRS - Hard Red Spring
HRW - Hard White Winter
SRW - Soft Red Winter
Durum - Durum

4. Can Wheat quality affect the absorption of fat into a doughnut?
Yes, if the flour is too weak, the fat absorption will be higher.

5. What is the reason for blisters under the surface of doughnuts?
Most likely skin formation due to exposure to a dry atmosphere in the fermentation chamber or prior to frying. Other possibilities : excessive moisture in the fermentation chamber; dough that is too strong because of a wheat mix (hard wheat, mote than 33% wet gluten) or oxidative treatment.

6. What flour type is to be recommended for cake doughnuts?
Soft wheat flour with 8.5 – 9.5% protein and hard wheat flour with 10.5 – 12.0% protein are suitable. Blends of 70/30 or 50/50 soft to hard flour are common.

7. Can flour affect the formation of acrylamide?
The formation of acryl amide depends on the presence of the amino acid asparagin and reducing sugars, in particular glucose and its derivatives. Flours with a high amylase content (Low Falling Number), a high maltose number or high starch damage are therefore likely to result in increased acrylamide formation. Whole grain wheat and rye flour contain more asparagin than white sifted flour. The germ has the highest content of asparagin.

8. What flour quality should be used for steamed bread?
Although the required flour quality differs considerably from one type of steamed bread to another, there are some common traits: the protein content is typically rather low or medium (7.5 – 11.5%), the ash content should be below 0.45% and the Falling Number well above 300 s. Other rheological properties such as the Farinograph figures can be very different, depending on the type of steamed bread.

9. What are typical problems of steamed bread caused by flour?
Small volume                     Low protein; intrinsic enzyme activity too high / too low
Shrinkage                           High Protein
Dark Colour                       Dark wheat variety; high extraction rate; high protein
Flat Shape                          Weak protein, enzyme activity too high
Holes in the crumb             Very short protein; enzyme activity too high


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