Showing posts from July, 2018

Dosage of Additives and Shelf-life of Bread

Dosage of Additives 1. The capacity of my mill is 100 tons/day. I want to improve the flour with ascorbic acid and enzymes. What options do I have? All! The improvers can be added separately or as premix, e.g. with middlings, using one or more micro-feeders of adequate dimensions. They can also be added in a batch process provided that a sufficiently large mixer is available.
2. We have to make a premix of flour improving agents with a carrier. What a carrier should we use? The best shelf-life of the premix is achieved with calcium sulphate or carbonate as a carrier, but both increase the ash content of the flour. Starch and soybean flour are also possible, but expensive. Flour or middlings are another option, the latter having better flow properties. If benzoyl peroxide (BPO) is to be used, the carries of choice are calcium carbonate, calcium sulphate or starch, because with one of the other carriers BPO would already lose part or all of its function in the premix.
3. We want to make a …


1. How can I replace potassium bromate, azodicarbonamide or ascorbic acid? The replacement of potassium bromate requires an oxidizing agent, e.g. ADA or ascorbic acid, and an enzyme that helps to soften the dough. The fast-reacting ADA can be replaced by mixtures of calcium peroxide and ascorbic acid. Ascorbic acid can only be omitted (in the absence of any other oxidizing agent) if limitations to baking performance are tolerated. Oxidizing enzymes such as glucose oxidase are not very effective in the centre of the dough unless the mixing process is performed at elevated air pressure or with the introduction of oxygen into the dough.
2. Why does benzoyl peroxide not succeed in bleaching my chappati flour (flour for flat bread, very high extraction rate)? Various explanations are possible : a. The dark colour of wholemeal flour is not only due to carotenoids with which benzoyl peroxide reacts. b. Because of the high concentration of pigments the BPO is exhausted before it achieves a bri…

Spectroscopic Methods

1. Why are spectroscopics methods used in cereal analysis? With the original gravimetric and chemical methods of analysis it was not possible to determine the properties and consistuents of grain mixtures of flour-and-water doughs reproducibly and quickly within the time in which it was possible to intervene in technical processes. NIR spectrometry has done away with these difficulties and shortcomings.
2. What does NIR stand for? The near-infrared (NIR) region is the wavelength range between 800 and 2,500 nm of the electromagnetic spectrum, i.e. a very dark red that is no longer visible to the human eye.
3. What is meant by NIR Spectrometry? The NIR procedure is a quick method by which individual components of a mixture of substances can be determined qualitatively and quantitatively. Constituents that contribute to the value of a product can be determined simultaneously within a few minutes and called up in sequence.
4. What is difference between NIR and NIT? The difference between re…