Hard White (US Wheat Associates 2017 Crop Quality)

By : US Wheat Associates

Medium to high protein content, hard endosperm, white bran. Used in Asian noodles, whole wheat or high extraction flour applications, pan breads and flat breads.

52 samples Collected by state and private inspection agencies; commercial wheat handlers; Plains Grains, Inc.; and state wheat commissions.

The Wheat Marketing Center (WMC) conducted the quality analyses. The Federal Grain Inspection Service (FGIS) graded the samples

Official grade factors were determined on each sample. Non-grade factors and functionality tests were conducted on 6 composite samples categorized by growing region and protein ranges of <11.5%, 11.5% to 12.5% and >12.5%. The growing regions are highlighted on the map on page 23. The methods are described in the Analysis Methods section of this blog.

The 2017 hard white wheat (HW) crop was grown primarily in Colorado, Kansas, Idaho and Nebraska. Other states including California, Montana, North Dakota and South Dakota had limited production. U.S. Wheat Associates estimates 2017 HW production at 883,300 metric tons (MT), down slightly from 2016's 898,600 MT reported by USDA
Hard White Production
All six composites graded U.S. No. 1 with test weight ranging from 61.4 to 65.2 lb/bu (80.7 to 85.7 kg/hl). The ranges of values found in the composites are: dockage from 0.1 to 0.7%; wheat moisture from 7.7% to 11.1%; wheat protein from 10.4% to 13.3% (12% mb); wheat ash from 1.45% to 1.57% (14% mb); kernel hardness from 59.4 to 72.3; and kernel diameters from 2.67 to 2.93 mm. The thousand kernel weights (TKW) of Pacific Northwest (PNW) low- and high-protein composites and California low- and high-protein composites are 32.9 g or higher, while the TKW of Southern Plains low- and medium-protein composites are 29.0 g and 29.7 g, respectively. Falling number values are 299 sec or higher for all composites, indicating mostly sound grain.

Buhler laboratory mill straight-grade flour extractions range from 71.1% to 74.5%, L* values (whiteness) from 91.3 to 92.0, flour protein from 9.1% to 12.4% (14% mb), and flour ash from 0.39% to 0.46% (14% mb). These values are within the historical ranges of HW flour.
Flour wet gluten contents range from 19.0% to 31.3% depending on flour protein content. Amylograph peak viscosities are between 345 BU and 929 BU, which show good starch pasting properties for most samples that are suitable for Asian noodle application. Starch damage values are in the range of 3.8% to 5.3%. Lactic acid SRC values are 117% to 159%, indicating medium to strong gluten strength.
Farinograms, alveograms and extensograms graphs of Hard White
Farinograph absorptions range from 56.9% to 66.0% and stability times from 7.9 min to 17.1 min, exhibiting the typically medium to strong dough characteristics of HW. HW farinograph water absorption is usually between that of HRW and HRS depending on protein content, and stability time is longer, indicating more tolerance to overmixing. The ranges of alveograph values are: P values 83 mm to 197 mm; L values 58 mm to 96 mm; and W values 212 to 439 (10-4 J). Extensograph data at 135-min resting show that maximum resistance is in the range of 646 BU to 1180 BU, extensibility from 11.8 cm to 18.6 cm and area from 108 cm2 to 225 cm2.
Farinograms, Alveograms and Extensograms of PNW Low and High Hard White
Most samples show good baking performance relative to protein content, with bake absorptions in the range of 62.0% to 71.1%, loaf volumes of 762 cc to 953 cc and crumb grain and texture scores of 5.0 points to 7.5 points.

HW flours and a control flour were evaluated for both Chinese raw noodles (white salted) and Chinese wet noodles (yellow alkaline). For Chinese raw noodles, the L* values at 0 hr of production and after 24 hr of storage at room temperature are acceptable for all samples except for the California high-protein composite, which has a L* 24 hr value of 70.5 (72 is the minimum value at 24 hr). The sensory color stability score is close to acceptable for most samples (7.0 is the control noodle). Cooked noodle texture is softer for California high-protein composite and Southern Plains low-protein composite due to low amylograph peak viscosity and For Chinese wet noodles, sensory color stability scores are acceptable for PNW composites and Southern Plains composites. The cooked noodle hardness values of all Chinese wet noodles indicate acceptable texture. Overall, this year's HW samples will produce noodles with more acceptable color and texture if low ash patent flour is used.
Harvest Data Hard White 2017

HW flours were evaluated for Asian steamed breads in comparison with a control flour. Results show most samples are acceptable for steamed breads except for the Southern Plains low- and medium-protein composites, which indicate slightly low total product scores. The specific volumes are similar for all samples except for the California high-protein composite because its dough was a slightly strong for steamed bread expansion. Blending 10% to 25% of SW flour with high protein HW flour would improve overall steamed bread quality.

This year’s samples show good quality performance in milling, dough rheological properties and end products, including pan breads, Asian noodles and steamed breads. PNW low- and high-protein composites and California high-protein composite have very good bread baking potential. For Asian noodle applications, most samples have good noodle color and color stability in both raw noodle and wet noodle and produce noodles of acceptable texture. For steamed breads, it is recommended that high protein HW flour be blended with a small portion of SW flour to improve product quality by avoiding steamed bread shrinkage.

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