Hard Red Spring (US Wheat Associates 2017 Crop Quality Report)

By : US Wheat Associates

Highest protein content, hard endosperm, red bran, strong gluten, high water absorption. Used in pan breads, hearth breads, rolls, croissants, bagels, hamburger buns, pizza crust and for blending.

799 Samples Collected from fields, on-farm bin sites or elevators, and separated by export region

The HRS Wheat Quality Lab, Department of Plant Sciences, North Dakota State University (NDSU), Fargo, ND, collected samples and conducted quality analyses.

Official grade and non-grade factors were determined on 60% of samples. Functionality tests were conducted on 24 composite samples categorized by export region and protein ranges of <13.5%, 13.5% to 14.5% and >14.5%. Production-weighted results are presented as Composite, Eastern and Western Region averages based on composite samples. Eastern and Western Region states are highlighted on the map on page 16. The methods are described in the Analysis Methods section of this blog.

Weather and Harvest
Planting began in early April, near normal, with adequate soil moisture in most areas. Cool soil temperatures hindered progress initially, but warm, dry conditions allowed progress to accelerate into mid-May. Planting was 95% complete by the end of May, slightly ahead of normal.

Dry soil conditions and well below normal rainfall affected Montana and western North and South Dakota with much of that area in moderate to severe drought during June and July. Yield prospects fell well below normal, and a greater than normal share of planted acres was abandoned for forage. However, quality impacts were minimal.

In contrast, the Pacific Northwest, Minnesota and eastern parts of North and South Dakota benefitted from timely and more abundant precipitation, resulting in above-average to record yields. Disease pressure was nearly non-existent due to drier than normal weather in many areas.

Harvest began in late July and progressed steadily due to generally dry conditions. Mid-August rains had minimal crop impact. Harvest was largely complete by mid- September, slightly ahead of normal.

The 2017 HRS production, estimated at 10.5 million metric tons (MMT), is down from 13.4 MMT in 2016 and is well below the 5-year average. USDA estimates that the total 2017/18 HRS supply (excluding imports) is down 19% from 2016/17 due to smaller production and beginning stocks.

Wheat and Grade Data
The average grade is U.S. No. 1 NS; 97% of Eastern Region samples and 83% of Western Region samples graded U.S. No. 1. The overall average test weight is 61.6 lb/bu (81 kg/hl), similar to the 5-year average, though the Western Region average is lower due to drought. Eighty-eight percent of Eastern samples are above 60 lb/bu (78.9 kg/hl) compared to just 66% of Western samples. Average damage is 0.0%, but shrunken and broken kernels are 0.9%, slightly higher than 2016. Average vitreous kernel content (DHV) is 73%, compared to 85% a year ago. Average DHV for Western samples is 82% compared to just 62% for Eastern.
Test weight, Hectoliter weight, Wheat moisture, Protein (12% mb), 1000 Kernel weight and Falling Number of Hard Red Spring

Farinograms, Alveograms and Extensograms of Hard Red Spring

The average protein is 14.6% (12% mb), higher than both 2016 and the 5-year average; the Western crop has a greater year-to-year increase. Western average protein is 14.9%, while Eastern average protein is14.4%. More than one-half of all samples have greater than 14.5% protein in 2017 compared to just 36% in 2016. The Eastern protein distribution is more balanced with 30% falling below 13.5% protein.
Hard Red Spring Harvest Data
Kernel moisture is low, averaging 12.0%, but varies from 11.2% for the Western crop to 12.7% for the Eastern. The average falling number is 383 sec, indicating sound wheat. Only 2% of the crop falls below 300 sec. Minimal disease pressure kept DON levels nearly non-existent except for a small number of Eastern samples. The crop’s overall DON average is less than 0.5 ppm. Thousand kernel weight (TKW) is slightly lower than 2016 and the 5-year average; TKW averages 32.9 g in the Eastern samples but just 28.7 g in the Western.

Flour and Baking Data
Buhler laboratory mill flour yield averages 71.2%, up sharply from 2016 and the 5-year averages; both the Western and Eastern crops have improved extractions. Flour ash is also higher at 0.58%, compared to just 0.49% in 2016 and the 5-year average of 0.50%. Wet gluten averages 35.8%, up from recent years. Amylograph values average 588 BU for 65 g of flour, slightly lower than 2016 and the 5-year average, with the highest protein segments of the crop having the lowest values in both regions.

Farinograph dough properties are slightly weaker compared to 2016 with similar absorption. Average farinograph stability is 10.7 min, down from 12.2 in 2016 but similar to the 5-year average. The Eastern crop has slightly stronger dough properties relative to the Western area, but dough strength increases at higher protein levels in both areas. The average farinograph absorption is 63%, with slightly higher absorptions noted in the Western crop.

The extensograph shows less resistance and greater extensibility compared with 2016 and the 5-year average. The average alveograph W-value is 360 (10-4 J) compared with 394 in 2016 and the 5-year average of 362.

The average loaf volume is 968 cc and average bake absorption is 67.1%, both of which are lower than 2016. Dough handling properties are showing greater extensibility this year relative to 2016, especially in the Western region and may require adjustments for end users. Bread scores are higher in 2017 in both Western and Eastern crops.

The smaller 2017 HRS crop has many positive attributes, including high grades, plentiful protein, little to no DON and very good functional performance. Some variance in rotein levels, shrunken and broken kernels, thousand kernel weights and functional performance does exist due to the vast differences in growing conditions across the region. Diligent contract specifications are still encouraged on this high quality crop to ensure buyers get the quality expected.

Hard Red Spring Production

HRS Grade Distributions
The export cargo data represent 490 individual sublot samples provided by USDA’s Federal Grain Inspection Service for crop years 2016 (collected from October 2016 through June 2017) and 2015. Of 241 2016-crop samples, 197 were from the PNW, 16 from Gulf ports and 28 from Great Lakes ports. Grade data are the official grades on the individual sublots. North Dakota State University conducted the milling and baking analyses.
Haard Red Spring Export Cargo Data

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