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Wheat Evaluation Process – Wheat Evaluation For Grade

Wheat evaluation in the United States is undertaken to ensure general standards of acceptance in flour or semolina production. Many factors are used to determine the wheat class and grade. Physical attributes including colour, shape and hardness determine the class of wheat and the inclusion of contrasting wheat classes. The presence of dockage, foreign material and damaged kernels attests to the overall wheat quality. Test weight provides an indication of kernel soundness and suitability for milling. While factors determining wheat grade are important, they do not completely describe wheat quality.
Wheat quality factors not included in the grading system are critically important to grain storage and milling and baking performance. Moisture and protein content are among the most obvious of these characteristics. Maintaining wheat quality depends on monitoring and controlling moisture content in a safe range. Protein level is often a key characteristic in selection by the miller for t…

U.S. – Six Basic Wheat Classes

There are several hundred varieties of wheat produced in the United States, all of which fall into one of the six recognized classes of economic significance. Each of these six wheat classes has unique milling, baking and processing properties. Unfortunately, grain-grading standards often fail to accurately assess the quality characteristics required to meet end-use performance standards. The six official class groupings can be distinguished from each other in simple, observable ways. The class of a variety is determined by its hardness, the colour of its kernels and by its planting time. Through selective breeding, each class of wheat has developed its own relatively uniform characteristics relating to milling, baking or other food use. The six commercially recognized classes are as follows: Hard Red Winter (HRW), an important bread wheat, accounts for almost 40% of the U.S. wheat crop and wheat exports. This autumnseeded wheat is produced in the Great Plains, which extend from the M…

Wheat – Historical Perspective, Statistical Perspective and U.S. Grain Grading Standards

From before recorded history, through time to this Information Age, wheat has been one of the few global constants. For each of us in this fascinating industry, the more we study and apply the more we realize there is to discover. This chapter does not attempt to cover the entire subject. At best a small light will shine onto some of the many questions that might be asked by millers. The particulars generated in it are from United States based educators whose perceptions have undoubtedly been narrowed by their life experiences.
1. Wheat – Historical Perspective Wheat-type plants such as emmer and einkorn are considered the ancestors of today's wheat plant (see page 1). Researchers do not agree on the exact time and place of the first cultivation of wheat. Most authorities do agree, however, that wheat was an important food source in the Mediterranean region centuries before recorded history. Wheat was not always the predominant grain for human food consumption. Barley and rye wer…

Global Wheat Trade

The international trade in wheat (including durum and flour) reached an average volume of around 107 mio t during the last five years (1999/00 - 2003/04). This compares to 106 mio t during 1989/90 - 1993/94 and 96 mio t in 1979/80 - 1983/84. Accordingly, world trade in wheat increased by just 0.5% per annum during the last 20 years. During the same time, world wheat production showed a growth of approximately 1.4%. As a consequence, the share of world wheat trade expressed as a percentage of worldwide production dropped from 21% in 1979/80 - 1983/84 to 19% in 1979/89 - 83/84 and 1999/00 - 2003/04, respectively. This development demonstrates the efforts of nearly all wheat importing countries to improve their supplies of wheat through a higher domestic production. Exports of wheat continue to be dominated by the five traditional exporters: the USA, Canada, Argentina, Australia and the EU (Tab. 5). Three quarters of all exports came from these five countries during the most recent five-…

Future Trends of Wheat and New Breeding Technologies in Central Europe

1. Future Trends In view of the still long development period of 9 to 12 years it is essential for the survival of the breeding enterprises to foresee what demands growers, processors and consumers are likely to make on future varieties.
At present the following trends can be detected in wheat growing. In the main they have economic reasons, ignore experience in plant growing and make great demands on the varieties of the future in respect of stress tolerance in general: • The area used for wheat growing is increasing. • Leaf crops, which are very good preceding crops for wheat, are decreasing. • This will result in a steadily rising percentage of stubble wheat or even permanent wheat growing. • The sowing time is being moved forward to September even in locations with mild weather conditions. • Care in tilling the soil in general, and the handling of stubble in particular, is declining, and it is likely to decline even further as energy costs rise.
A likely result of these "sin…

Wheat Development in the U.S. & Wheat Cultivation and Harvest

1. Wheat Development in the U.S. The wheat plant itself goes through several stages of development from the time it is planted until it has reached maturity (Fig. 3). These stages are monitored and measured at each point by farmers and researchers in an effort to understand how best to improve the amount of wheat produced by each plant. This diligence combined with experience helps the farmer to make decisions about fertilizers or other chemical applications for disease and pest control. Ultimately, the goal is a large crop of high milling quality wheat produced at the least cost.
2. Wheat Cultivation and Harvest Wheat planting practices and the labour required for planting have seen dramatic changes over the last century. Powerful technology – enhanced tractors and implements capable of working more than 120 acres (48.6 hectares) in a single day (Fig. 4) – have replaced men with mules in the field.

In some cases wheat is even planted over the top of the previous year's stubble usi…

Wheat History and Kernel Composition

1. Wheat History K. Brunckhorst ( The Future of Flour )
Common wheat belongs to the Triticum genus of the grass-like subfamily (Pooideae). Scientists have traced its origin back to the Middle East region, particularly the valley of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. This area was then called Mesopotamia and is now part of Iraq. A form of the grass grew in the Euphrates valley as early as 7000 BC. The Assyrians and Babylonians mentioned wheat in stone ruins dating from 3000 BC. The Chinese are recorded as cultivating wheat in 2700 BC and had developed elaborate rituals to honour it.
Today wheat covers more of the earth's surface than any other grain crop and it is the staple grain food for much of the earth's population. Even in areas where there is a long tradition of rice eating, as in North and South East Asia, there is extensive use of wheat flour for making noodles, steamed bread and other foods.
The different wheat species are classified according to their ploidy level, i.…