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Grist Optimizing and Unlocking Baking Potential of Flour

Every flour mill faces a plethora of challenges affecting its business operations. Some of the challenges may include inconsistent flour quality, need to enchance flour quality, raw material price fluctuations, wheat purchasing costs, non-optimal flour extraction rates, new product development, and need to innovate. All these desirable business outcomes are connected to three main decision criteria: wheat sourcing, wheat gristing and flour correction. The interrelationship between these three factors and business outcomes are depicted in picture below :
Depicts the interrelationship between wheat sourcing, wheat gristing, flour correction and major business deliverables or expected outcomes from a mill. Together, these factors and outcomes can help optimize costs, standardize flour performance and support new product development. Because of their performance predictability, baking enzymes are also an attractive option during gristing consideration at the flour mill.
Smart purchasing …

Wheat Damage

Immature and Frost Damaged Kernels These kernels are usually found in Manitoba wheat No. 5. This normally ground for disqualification . they are a cause of poor flour yield and dark flour color, but they promote gas production in the dough in yeast fermentation. Frost damaged kernels are usually blistered on the outside.
Sprout-Damaged Kernels These are wheat kernels that have begun to sprout or germinate in the wheat ear out in the field as a result of continuous high moisture. These kernels are similar to malting-barley kernels. The internal break-down has already begun, thanks to the activity of strong enzymes. Dough made from sprouted wheat flour are sticky, due to excessive amounts of alpha-amylase.
Heat-Damaged Kernels These are kernels with a brownish endosperm, caused by spontaneous heating during wheat storage and strong respiration. A dark colored flour is the result. Really burnt (carbonized) kernels are occasionally found. These are produced by over-heating in grain driers …

Storage of Wheat and the Problem Associated with it

The storage of the enormous grain stock necessary for the huge masses of people today is practically always done in closed silo bins. One differentiates between : high constructions and low-built cells, with or without aeration facilities.
The grain kernel is a living organism which breaths (respirates). The microorganisms (bacteria and mold (fungi)) living on it, also breath and play an important role. Heat, as well as water and carbon dioxide is produced during respiration, in the course of which oxygen of the air surrounding the kernel is consumed. The respiration intensity increases with increasing moisture contents, and also with increasing temperatures. It can be clearly seen that the respiration intensity and therefore also heat development are both very small at a moisture content of 14%, whereas the intensity increases quickly above 15%. A temperature increase has a similar effect on respiration intensity as does increasing moisture content. A rapid increase will occur thoug…

Strucuture of a Wheat Kernel and its Chemical Composition

Picture above give an idea of the structure of a wheat kernel and its various constituents, as well as its % mineral matter (ash content on dry matter basis). The amount of each constituent in the whole kernel is also given in percent.
The flour cells (endosperm) are mainly filled with starch and protein, and represent a dry reserve for the germ. The sprouting germ derives its first nourishment from this part. The thickness of the whole bran varies with the varying thickness (0.048 – 0.066 mm) of the longitudinal cells (pericarp). The colorless aleurone cells do not cover the germ. The ash content of these cells is more than 20 times higher than that of the white flour (endosperm). This layer is approx. 0.05 mm. thick and contains up to 30% protein (but no gluten protein), lipids (another 30%), vitamins and enzymes. A toxic substance has been found in the aleurone fat of the rye kernel which is of importance in animal feeding.
The nuccelar epidermis is situated between the aleurone c…

Quality Evaluation of Wheat

The quality of wheat can be evaluated from two different viewpoints. the results do not necessarily coincide :

Evaluation from the milling point of viewEvaluation from baking point of view

A. Milling Quality of Wheat  

Important properties are :
1.Purity of the wheat, i.e. dockage or Besatz and other impurities The lesser the admixture, the higher the value of the wheat. Mechanically operated apparatuses (e.g. Granotest) have been developed in recent years to ascertain the percentage of impurities. The evaluation is done by a standard method.
2.Test weight (bushel or hectoliter weight) The viewpoints differ greatly as to the significance of these factors to milling. It is in any case an accepted fact that these factors are not always indicitive as to the milling quality of wheat.
The hectoliter weight of a first class wheat can e.g. decrease from 81.5 kg to 72.5 k, merely through contamination on with small quantities of powder (sand, dust). The milling quality is not necessarily reduced…

Product Tests (A Guide to Understanding Wheat and Flour Quality)

A.Pan Bread

Formula :
Procedure 1. Flour and other ingredients are mixed with a yeast suspension to form a dough. 2. The dough is mixed until it reaches optimum dough development. 3. The dough is rounded and placed into a fermentation cabinet at 30 degrees Celsius and 85 percent relative humidity for 105 minutes. 4. First Punch – The dough is passed through a sheeter, folded twice, and returned to the fermentation cabinet for 50 minutes. 5. Second Punch – The dough is passed through a sheeter, folded twice, and returned to the fermentation cabinet for 25 minutes. 6. The dough is molded into a cylinder shape and proofed in a pan for 62 minutes. 7. The dough is baked in a 215 degrees Celsius oven for 24 minutes and then cooled to room temperature.
Results 1. Pan bread is evaluated for processing characteristics, external and internal characteristics, and texture. The results are expressed as a numerical score based on comparison to a control sample. 2. Pan bread dough is evaluated during …