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Cereal Varieties (and their application for food purposes)

By Buhler

World Cereal Production

Production in millionton per grain variety
No.
Grain variety
1994-1995
1999-2000
2003-2004
1.
Maize
569.5
590.8
705.3
2.
Rize
534.7
598.4
608.5
3.
Wheat
495.6
576.3
586.5
4.
Barley
160.8
131.9
155.1
5.
Sorghum
6010.9
58.5
60.2
6.
Durum
30.6
34.1
37.6
7.
Millet
25.9
27.2
27.7
8.
Oats
33.7
25.9
26.9
9.
Rye
22.5
19.9
19.5
10.
Triticale
11.4
9.4
13.7
11.
MIxes
8.7
6.2
7.3
Total
1954.3
2078.6
2249.3

1. Maize


Domesticated in mesoamerica (Mexico and Central America). Maize development is thought to have started from 7,500 t0 12,000 years ago. Maize then was brought to North America. The US is still the biggest producer of maize with almost half of world harvest. Maize was brought to Europe during the exploration of the americas in the 16th and 17th centuries. Used mainly as feed, Maize has the highest harvest volume world-wide with over 600 mio. tons.





Maize Biggest Producers :
Top 12 Producers [2005]
No.
Country
Total
(mio. tons)
1.
USA
280
2.
China
133
3.
Brazil
35
4.
Mexico
20
5.
Argentina
19
6.
India
15
7.
France
13
8.
Indonesia
12
9.
South Africa
12
10.
Italy
11
11.
Romania
9.9
12.
Hungary
9.0

Maize (Corn) : Usage for Human consumption
  • Corn Starch
  • Corn flakes
  • Sweet Corn (Salds/Vegetables)
  • Oil from maize germ
  • Corn Soup
  • Mais Semolina (Polenta ; Famous in Italy)
2. Rice

Rice is dietary staple of more than half of the world's human pooulation, making it the most human consumed cereal grain. Rice culvitation is considered to have begun simultaneously in many countries over 6500 years ago. Main culvation areas were Asia and Africa. Rice production volume is similar to that of wheat and lists as number 2 or 3 depending on harvest year. World production of rice has risen steadily from about 200 million tons of paddy rice in 1960 to 600 million tons in 2004.

Rice Biggest Producers

Top 12 Producers [2005]
No.
Country
Total
(mio. tons)
1.
China
185
2.
India
129
3.
Indonesia
54
4.
Bangladesh
40
5.
Vietnam
36
6.
Thailand
27
7.
Myanmar
25
8.
Philippines
15
9.
Brazil
13
10.
Japan
11
11.
USA
10
12.
Pakistan
7.3

















Source : http://www.geohive.com/global/geo.php?xml=ag_rice&xsl=ag


Rice Usage for Human Consumption



  • The seeds of the rice plant (paddy) are first milled to remove the outer husks of the grain; this creates brown rice.
  • Pearling and polishing is removing the germ and the rest of the husk, called bran, creating white rice.
  • The processed rice is usually steamed of fried.
  • Other finished products are : 
          - Rice starch
          - Baverages (Sake, Rice milk, etc.)
          - Rice crackers, Snacks

3. Wheat

Wheat is besides Rice and Maize the most important staple grain in the world. Cultivation began ca. 9000 years ago in Mesopotamia (today Iran, Irak, Syria). Then spread via Egypt into Europe. Wheat production is similar to Rice production at around 600 mio. tons. Wheat is the only grain that can be worked into bread without restrictions due to the content of Gluten protein.


Wheat Biggest Producers 
Top 12 Producers [2005]
No.
Country
Total
(mio tons)
1.
China
96
2.
India
72
3.
USA
57
4.
Russia
48
5.
France
37
6.
Canada
25
7.
Australia
24
8.
Germany
24
9.
Pakistan
22
10.
Turkey
21
11.
Ukraine
19
12.
Argentina
16



















Source : http://www.geohive.com/global/geo.php?xml=ag_wheat&xsl=ag

Wheat Usage for Human Consumption



  • Mainly Flour (For Bread, For Noodles, For Confectionary)
  • Semolina
  • Puffed Wheat
  • Cereals


4. Barley


Barley is a staple food for humans and animals. Cultivation started in Mesopotamia from the 2000 BC. Barley can be divided by the number of kernel rows in the head. Three species have been cultivated; two-row barley, four-row and six-row barley. Two-row barley is the oldest form, wild barley having two rows as well. Two-row barley has a lower protein content than six-row barley but a higher enzyme content. High protein barley is best suited for animal feed or malt that has a large adjunct content. Two-row barley is best suited for pure malts. Four-row is unsuitable for brewing.



Barley Biggest producers
Top 12 Producers [2005]


No.
Country
Total
(mio tons)
1.
Russia
15.8
2.
Canada
12.1
3.
Germany
11.7
4.
France
10.4
5.
Ukraine
9.0
6.
Turkey
9.0
7.
Australia
6.6
8.
UK
5.5
9.
USA
4.6
10.
Spain
4.4
11.
Denmark
3.7
12.
Poland
3.5
















Barley Usage for Human Consumption
  • Beer
  • Malt Whiskey
  • Barley Flakes/ Cereals


5. Sorghum

Sorghum is cultivated tropical cereal grass (like rice and maize). It originated in Africa and is the 5th major cereal crop in the world. Sorghum grains have a very similar structure to Maize. They both have a horny and a floury endosperm and a large germ. Sorghum consists of ca.
  • 75% Starch
  • 12% Protein
  • 5% Fibre
  • 4% Fat
  • 4% Minerals
In the past 25 years sorghum production in Africa has increased from 11.6 mio tons to 21 mio tons.

Sorghum Biggest Producers :
Top 12 Producers [2005]
No.
Country
Total
(mio tons)
1.
USA
9.8
2.
Nigeria
8.0
3.
India
8.0
4.
Mexico
6.3
5.
Sudan
4.3
6.
Argentina
2.9
7.
China
2.6
8.
Ethiopia
1.8
9.
Australia
1.7
10.
Brazil
1.5
11.
Burkina Faso
1.4
12.
Egypt
0.95















Source :http://www.syngentafoundation.com/pdf/sorghum_top_20_producers.pdf



Sorghum Usage for Human Consumption


  • Porridge
  • Bread
  • Pancakes
  • Dumplings
  • Couscous
  • Breakfast cereals (Puffed)
  • Beer

6. Durum

Durum -from the Latin word for hard - is the name for the hardest of all wheats. Durum's hardness makes it the wheat of choice for producing pasta. Its high protein content and gluten strength make durum good for pasta and bread. Durum kernels are amber colored and larger than those of other wheat classes. Unique to durum is the fact that its endosperm is not creamy white, but yellow, which gives pasta its golden colour.

Durum Biggest Producers
Top 12 Producers [2003]
No.
Country
Total
(mio tons)
1.
Italy
4.2
2.
Canada
3.7
3.
Syria
2.8
4.
Turkey
2.3
5.
Spain
1.9
6.
France
1.6
7.
India
1.4
8.
Russia
1.2
9.
Mexico
1.1
10.
Morocco
1.0
11.
Algeria
0.9
12.
Greece
0.8


















Durum usage for human consumption
  • Pasta
  • Couscous
  • Bread
7. Millet

Millets are importance in Africa, Asia, China and Russia. Millets include :
  • Pearl (bulrush) millet
  • Finger millet
  • Prosso (golden millet) millet
  • Fox tail millet
  • Japanese millet
  • Teff millet
  • Koda (ditch millet)
  • Brown top millet
  • plus for other species of limited importance
Millet origins in Asia and Africa. Oldest found in China date back to 4500 BC. 

Millet Biggest Producers
Top 12 Producers [2005]
No.
Country
Total
(mio tons)
1.
India
9.00
2.
Nigeria
6.28
3.
China
2.10
4.
Niger
2.10
5.
Mali
0.97
6.
Burkina Faso
0.94
7.
Uganda
0.70
8.
Senegal
0.69
9.
Sudan
0.66
10.
Russia
0.46
11.
Ukraine
0.32
12.
Ethiopia
0.31


















Millet Usage for Human consumption
  • Estimated 20 mio. tons are used for Food purpose
  • 90% of human consumption in developing countries
  • Bread (Chapatti)
  • Porridge
Information : Teff Millet
Teff Millet has a high iron content - almost double of that of other food grains and calcium content almost 20 times more than other grains.

8. Oats

Oats are native to Eurasia and have been dometicated relatively late. They are grown throughout the climatic zones. They have a lower summer heat requirement and greater tolerance of rain than wheat, rye or barley. Oat bran is believed to lower LDL ("bad") cholesterol, and possibly to reduce the risk of heart disease. Oats are also a safe grain for people with celiac disease (gluten intolerance).

Oats Biggest Producers :
Top 12 Producers [2005]
No.
Country
Total
(mio tons)
1.
Russia
4.57
2.
Canada
3.33
3.
USA
1.67
4.
Poland
1.31
5.
Finland
1.18
6.
Australia
1.12
7.
Germany
0.97
8.
China
0.80
9.
Belarus
0.76
10.
Sweden
0.75
11.
Ukraine
0.73
12.
Brazil
0.55
















Oats Usage for Human Consumption
  • Oats Flakes
  • Oatmeal Bread 
  • Oatmeal Cookies
  • Oatmeal Porridge
  • Cereal bars
  • Cherrios
  • Baby Food
  • Soup
9. Rye
Rye (Secale cereale) is a member of the wheat tribe and is closely related to barley and wheat. Rye grain is used to make flour, feed, some whiskeys and most vodkas. Rye was not one of the main cereals of Classical Antiquity. Since the middle ages rye is widely cultivated in Central and Eastern Europe and is one of the main bread cereal there.

Rye Biggest Producers
Top 12 Producers [2005]
No.
Country
Total
(mio tons)
1.
Russia
3.63
2.
Poland
3.36
3.
Germany
2.81
4.
Belarus
1.25
5.
Ukraine
1.19
6.
China
0.75
7.
Canada
0.37
8.
Turkey
0.26
9.
Czech Rep.
0.19
10.
USA
0.19
11.
Austria
0.16
12.
France
0.15
Source:http://www.fao.org/es/ess/top/commodity.jsplang=EN&commodity=71&CommodityList=71&year=2004&yearLyst=2004

Rye Usage for Human Consumption

  • Dark, moist, heavy type of Bread
  • Made usually from Sour dough
  • Rye Whiskey
  • Most Vodkas
10. Triticale
Triticale is man-made crop developed by crossing wheat (Triticum) with rye (Secale cereale). Drought tolerance is the primary advantage that spring triticales have over other spring cereal crops. While the nutritional quality of triticale is considered superior to wheat, the higher ash content, lower milling yields of flour, and inferior loaf volume and texture distract from commercial baking use of triticale. 

Triticale Biggest Producers
Top 12 Producers [2005]

No.
Country
Total
(mio tons)
1.
Poland
3.75
2.
Germany
2.74
3.
France
1.78
4.
China
1.25
5.
Belarus
1.10
6.
Australia
0.62
7.
Hungary
0.57
8.
Czech Rep.
0.28
9.
Sweden
0.28
10.
Denmark
0.20
11.
Lithuania
0.20
12.
Austria
0.20












Source:http://www.fao.org/es/ess/top/commodity.jsplang=EN&commodity=97&CommodityList=97&year=2004&yearLyst=2004

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