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Cereal Chemistry and Dough Properties of Indian Wheat

1. Cereal Chemistry The grain protein content varies considerably, depending on whether the harvest is from well irrigated highly fertilized fields or from rain fed, low yielding fields to which less fertilizer has been applied. The warm wheat growing areas generally have a higher grain protein content than the cool NHZ. The hill wheat with low protein and a high spread factor is suitable for the biscuit industry. PZ wheat is good for crackers and cookies, as it has a high protein content and strong gluten. High molecular weight (HMW) gluten in Indian wheat varies with the variety. A frequency of 2+12 for Glu-D is usual in > 70 of the Indian varieties and the rest have a 5+10 band. Similarly, the most common Glu-A is band 2* in > 60% of the genotypes and the rest have either band 1 or N (nil). Glu-B is very diverse, and an almost equal number of varieties have either 7+9 or 7+8 or 17+18. The presence of band 7 or only band 20 is found in a few odd wheat varieties. In the CIMMYT …
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Quality Characteristics of Indian Wheat

After rice, wheat is the most important cereal in India. It is grown in cooler regions of India during the mild winter months of November to mid-April. Nearly 26 million hectares (mio ha) are sown with wheat. Of this, 24.5 mio ha are sown with spring bread wheat or Triticum aestivum, nearly 1.5 mio ha go under durum (T. durum); Khapli or T. dicoccum covers less than 50,000 ha, and a few fields of T. monococcum have been reported from Rajasthan. India's annual wheat production has been around 72 mio tons for the last few years, with minor variations between years. This puts India in second position among the wheat producing countries, with approx. 12 % of the world's wheat production. But India is also the second largest wheat consumer after China, with a quickly growing demand. The diverse growing environments are used to produce wheat grain with different quality attributes, so India is able to meet both domestic and international consumer needs.
1. India's Wheat Growing …

Chinese Wheat: Current Situation and Prospects

China is the world's largest wheat producer and consumer, and for many years it was the largest wheat importer too. All kinds of traditional Chinese food made from wheat flour, such as noodles, dumplings, pastry and steamed bread, are very popular.
1. Wheat Production China's wheat production in 2002 was estimated at 90.29 mio t, about 16% of the total world production of 565.48 mio t. During the 1990s, favourable weather helped China produce bumper wheat crops, with 1997 production topping 123 mio t. Over the past five years, production averaged 101.5 mio t. From 1994 to 1998, the total grain planting area in China increased from 109.5 mio hectares to 113.8 mio hectares. Since 1998, the total grain area has decreased by around 9%, with only about 103.9 mio hectares seeded for grain in 2002. This decrease is the result of rising urban and industrial development and a trend toward growing other crops such as oilseeds, cotton, fruits and vegetables. The wheat planting area has d…

Australian Wheat Part 2

1. Improved Farming Trends The following farming trends have become popular over the past 20 years and help produce of better quality crops, higher yields and lower farming costs. • Improved crop rotation involves planting different crop species. Employing crop rotation, with crops like lupins and clover every second or third year, deposits nutrients back into the soil and provides a disease and pest "break". This ensures cleaner conditions for wheat crops and reduces the need for pesticides and chemicals. • Use of nitrogenous fertilizers coupled with improved management with more soil testing and better formulations of fertilizers. • Minimum till farming uses herbicides to control weeds pre planting rather than relying on cultivation of the soil to kill weeds. This technology has considerably aided moisture retention and soil conservation. • Improved varieties have had an influence on increasing yields. New varieties have been produced that are higher yielding, as well as b…

Australian Wheat Part 1

1. Marketing Wheat to the World AWB markets millions of tonnes of Australian wheat all over the world, every year. It operates under a legislated Single Desk marketing system, which is designed to provide growers with consistent returns from international markets for their wheat by having a single supplier of bulk Australian wheat for export. The Single Desk responsibilities are conducted under Federal Government legislation, known as the Wheat Marketing Act 1989. AWB is formally committed through its corporate constitution to use the Single Desk to maximise returns for Australian growers delivering to AWB National Pool.
Wheat is received by the AWB National Pool under strict receival standards and segregated according to grade classification and quality attributes. The specific qualities and attributes of pool wheat are then matched to meet the requirements of and contractual arrangements for international customers.
The Single Desk system is managed as an integrated wheat management…

The Australian Wheat Industry

1. The Beginning Wheat has been grown since the beginning of European settlement more than 200 years ago. The first crop was sown by convicts at a Government farm on a site now in the heart of Sydney, New South Wales (NSW). The farming environment proved too harsh for the new settlers, with infertile soil, plant diseases, low and unreliable rainfall, lack of farm implements, labour shortages, land clearing and imported seed developed for a different climate.
Australia's wheat output increased dramatically from 1830 to 1840 with the establishment of the states of Victoria (Vic), South Australia (SA) and Western Australia (WA). The expansion of production to the inland areas of NSW was also a particularly important step. This growth was aided by a gold rush in 1850 and later, the construction of inland railways. Australian wheat exports commenced in 1845 and have continued on a regular basis since 1870.
The development of wheat growing in Australia continued in subsequent decades, w…

Eastern Canadian Wheat Classes & Canadian Wheat Classes and their Uses

Eastern Canadian Wheat Classes Approximately 1.2 mio t of wheat is produced annually in the southern Ontario peninsula between the Great Lakes (5-year average from 1998 to 2002). There are four wheat classes grown in Ontario: • Canada Eastern White Winter (CEWW), • Canada Eastern Soft Red Winter (CESRW), • Canada Eastern Hard Red Winter (CEHRW) • Canada Eastern Red Spring (CERS). Approximately 150,000 t of wheat is produced annually in southern Quebec, almost exclusively hard red spring wheat. In the Maritimes production is variable, but in a typical year about 30,000 t of red winter wheat and about 70,000 t of spring wheat is produced annually. There are three milling grades of CEWW, CESRW, CEHRW and CERS. KVD was removed as a criteria for red wheat registration in Eastern Canada in 1989, but is still required for white winter wheat varieties. When red wheat is delivered, the class is declared for binning and grading. If the class is not declared, the wheat is binned and graded as Ca…