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Wheat Grading and Classification in Canada

A specific kernel size, shape and colour is reserved for each wheat class grown in western Canada (Fig. 23). A requirement for registering a wheat variety in western Canada is that it must have the visual appearance reserved for the class for which it qualifies. This unique feature of the Canadian wheat grading and classification system is referred to as kernel visual distinguishability (KVD). KVD ensures that wheat classes are easily and cost effectively kept distinct throughout the handling system. This preserves the unique attributes of each class; admixing of classes results in a product with less processing value. In eastern Canada, KVD is a requirement only for registration into the Canada Eastern White Winter (CEWW) wheat class.
Physical condition is a primary determinant of wheat processing value. Physical condition is determined primarily by growing conditions. In Canada, wheat is graded according to grade standards established by the CGC (2003a). The grade standards are set…
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Canadian Wheat and Overview of the Canadian Wheat Quality Assurance System

Canadian Wheat By : J. E. Dexter, K.R. Preston and N. Woodbeck
The vast majority of Canadian wheat is produced in western Canada (Manitoba and provinces to the west). A large proportion of western Canadian wheat is exported, and it is marketed in a highly regulated fashion. As soon as western Canadian wheat is delivered by producers to a grain elevator the wheat becomes the property of the Canadian Wheat Board, which is a single desk seller for western Canadian wheat. Approval for registration into any of the eight classes of wheat in western Canada is based on merit according to disease resistance, agronomic performance and processing quality.
Wheat is also produced in eastern Canada, primarily in southern Ontario. Eastern Canadian wheat is also registered on the basis of merit, although processing quality models are not quite as strictly defined as for western Canada. There is no single desk seller for eastern Canadian wheat, which is marketed by private trading companies and the On…

U.S. Wheat Grades & Milling Industry Overview

1. U.S. Wheat Grades Tab. 15 summarizes the grade requirements for wheat. There are 5 wheat grades for good quality wheat. All other wheat, i.e. wheat that – does not meet the requirements for grades U.S. Numbers 1, 2, 3, 4 or 5; or – has a musty, sour, or commercially objectionable foreign odour (except smut or garlic odour); or – is heating or otherwise of distinctly low quality, is classified U.S. sample grade.

2. Milling Industry Overview
The U.S. Milling Industry has undergone dramatic change from any perspective, both from a historical and a current business view. North American milling is without question a competition- based market. It has been shaped and moulded by the economic forces created by the combined decisions of the consumers and producers of flour. In order to put these changes into a context to which we can all relate, a set of terms common to the U.S. market will be used to bring some clarity to this subject matter. • Annual Wheat Flour Production: Total flour produ…

Evaluation Process – Evaluating Flour, Dough and End Products

1. Determining Flour Quality Flour quality means different things to different users with different end goals. Typically, some conformance to a preset standard of functionality is used to describe a flour's "quality". This standard of functionality is often based on the experience of the user in correlating a test or group of tests to his particular product. Ultimately, flour quality is defined by the flour's ability to make the desired end product to the expectations of the user on a consistent basis. Because quality flour is imperative for the production of quality baked goods, flour functionality is controlled through careful wheat selection, mill process control, and analytical testing.
Flour strength is often used to describe the quality of flour, "strength" being the flour's ability to withstand mixing, absorb water, or perform satisfactorily in an end user's baking process. It seems that there are as many ways to describe flour strength as t…

Evaluation Process – Non Grade Factors

In addition to grading standards identified by governmental regulators there are often other quality measures imposed on the grain trade and millers. Tab. 11 presents a listing of non-grade evaluation criteria used for the various wheat classes. Additional flour, dough and baked or process product measurements are presented in Tab. 12 to Tab. 14. These additional factors should be considered when making wheat purchase decisions, and factors of most significance should be included in a purchase contract along with the class and grade criteria. North American milling companies conduct annual crop surveys internally or utilize outside services to evaluate the crop during the harvest. This allows their wheat buyers to identify the growing locations most closely meeting the customer's requirement. Each year's harvest produces a wheat crop with different characteristics that must be accommodated. The nature of wheat production and the commodity business often causes the wheat flour…

Wheat Evaluation Process – Wheat Evaluation For Grade

Wheat evaluation in the United States is undertaken to ensure general standards of acceptance in flour or semolina production. Many factors are used to determine the wheat class and grade. Physical attributes including colour, shape and hardness determine the class of wheat and the inclusion of contrasting wheat classes. The presence of dockage, foreign material and damaged kernels attests to the overall wheat quality. Test weight provides an indication of kernel soundness and suitability for milling. While factors determining wheat grade are important, they do not completely describe wheat quality.
Wheat quality factors not included in the grading system are critically important to grain storage and milling and baking performance. Moisture and protein content are among the most obvious of these characteristics. Maintaining wheat quality depends on monitoring and controlling moisture content in a safe range. Protein level is often a key characteristic in selection by the miller for t…